This concentration is designed to provide theory, research, knowledge, and field experiences for students who plan to teach reading and writing. Reading is presented as a linguistic, cognitive, and sociocultural process in relation to other language arts processes such as listening and speaking, with particular emphasis on writing and the writing process. Students select one of two program emphases: instruction or research. The instruction emphasis is designed for teachers and can lead to completion of the requirements for certification as a reading specialist. The research emphasis is designed for students who want to pursue research in reading and writing; students in this emphasis normally pursue the thesis option.