The Department of Communication Arts and Sciences at Penn State offers M.A. and Ph.D. degrees. The academic programs are developed by the individual students in consultation with their graduate faculty committees. Although academic work in most areas of communication is available, there are no prescriptive programs of study in any particular area. Typically, each student chooses an academic adviser from the graduate faculty and, in consultation with that adviser, chooses additional faculty members from inside and outside of the department to serve on his or her committee. The student then proposes for acceptance by this committee the course work that will constitute his or her formal program of study. The program of courses may or may not be confined to one of the areas of emphasis listed below. In sum, each student nominates his or her own graduate faculty and develops his or her own curriculum. Individual programs of study represent one of the unique features of graduate study in communication at Penn State.