The Department of Soil Science in the School of Natural Resource Sciences offers graduate study leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees that provide training in agricultural and/or environmental career tracks. The instructional and research programs emphasize an understanding of soil-plant-atmosphere interactions and their application to soil and water resource management. Students may pursue degrees with emphasis in soil chemistry, soil fertility, soil genesis and morphology, soil management, soil physics, environmental modeling, water quality, soil salinity, plant nutrition, soil survey, soil conservation, soil reclamation, soil mineralogy or agricultural climatology and meteorology. M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Natural Resources Management and Environmental and Conservation Science with emphasis in soil science are also available. A close working relationship exists between the department and various state and federal agencies and the private sector. Strong supporting course work is available from other departments and programs at North Dakota State University. Programs of study are designed to meet student interests and needs. North Dakota's diversity of soils and agricultural practices provides an exceptional field setting in which to study soil science. The department is well equipped for field and laboratory investigations. The Soil Science graduate program is open to all qualified graduates of universities and colleges of recognized standing. All applicants must meet the Graduate School requirements. Research assistantships are available. Applicants are considered on the basis of scholarship, potential to undertake advanced study and research, and financial need. To be considered for an assistantship, applicants must submit a completed application. A complete application will include three recommendations, transcripts and a scholarly writing example. A TOEFL score for international applicants must also be received by the Graduate School. The M.S. program normally requires 24 months of full-time study and research while the Ph.D. program normally requires a mini- mum of 36 months. An overall GPA of 3.0 or better must be maintained. An oral defense of thesis and academic subject matter is required of M.S. candidates. Ph.D. candidates are required to take a preliminary written and oral examination of academic subject matter and a final oral defense of a research-based dissertation.