The Department of Biological Sciences offers graduate study leading to Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees. Master of Science degrees are available in Biology, Botany, Environmental and Conservation Sciences, Natural Resources Management, and Zoology. Doctor of Philosophy degrees are available in Botany, Genomics, Cellular and Molecular Biology, Environmental and Conservation Sciences, Natural Resources Management, and Zoology. Advanced work may involve specialized training in the following areas: aquatic biology, behavior, cell biology, comparative biochemistry and physiology, cancer biology, conservation biology, ecology, endocrinology, developmental biology, evolution, fisheries biology, molecular biology, plant biology, population biology, prairie pothole ecology, systematics, evolutionary ecology and wildlife biology. Student research and academic programs are tailored to individual needs and interests. Interdisciplinary approaches to biological problems are encouraged. The graduate programs in the Department of Biological Sciences are open to all qualified graduates of universities and colleges of recognized standing. To be admitted with full status to the program, the applicant must meet all Graduate School admission requirements. Applications should be submitted directly to the Graduate School. For full consideration for GTA or GRA positions, applications must be submitted by January 15. Applicants will not be considered without a department faculty member who has agreed to serve as the major adviser. Correspondence with one or more departmental faculty members before and during the application process is essential. For email addresses for faculty members and for additional information about our programs, please visit our website at http://www.ndsu.edu/biology/. Research assistantships and teaching assistantships are available. Applicants are considered on the basis of scholarship, potential to undertake advanced study and research, as well as financial need. A student must first be accepted by the Graduate School before consideration for financial assistance. Assistantships include a waiver of tuition. In addition to research and teaching assistantships, there are other types of financial support. A limited number of State Board of Higher Education Scholarships and other fellowships are available through theGraduate School. Outstanding scholarship and financial need are primary considerations for these fellowships. Scholarships in specific areas are also available through the Department of Biological Sciences. These are generally supplemental and do not include tuition waivers. Students are considered for these awards after enrollment, with primary considerations being scholastic performance and research at NDSU.Faculty in the department have research programs ranging from molecular biology to ecosystem ecology and work with a wide variety of organisms across multiple levels of organization, from cellular mechanisms to ecosystem function. The department offers access to a range of equipment and facilities necessary for laboratory research, including greenhouses, animal rooms, growth chambers, tissue culture facilities, ultracentrifuges, spectrophotometers, electrophoresis, light microscopes, gas chromatography, GC-mass spectrometry, and high performance liquid chromatography. Facilities are available for protein and DNA sequencing, oligonucleotide synthesis, interactive laser cytometry, scanning transmission and electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy. Students must select a major adviser prior to their arrival for graduate studies.The Master of Science program generally requires a minimum of 24 months of full-time study, during which an overall GPA of 3.0 or better must be maintained. The Master of Science degree may be earned by either of two options. The thesis option emphasizes completion of a research project. The comprehensive study option requires more course work, and instead of conducting research and presenting a thesis, the candidate presents a paper or papers approved by the adviser to the examining committee, demonstrating ability for scholarly study and written expression. Candidates under both options must present a seminar on the thesis research or comprehensive study, and must pass an oral examination. The Ph.D. program generally requires a minimum of 36 months of full-time study, during which an overall GPA of 3.0 or better must be maintained. Candidates for the Ph.D. are required to take a preliminary written and oral examination directed to academic subject matter and a final defense of the dissertation.